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CRAMP Databases

The four database elements contain the following information:

  1. Benthic Database: Consists of information on sites, taxa, surveys, and survey data (both from the past and from on-going projects). Monitoring information includes coverage data on coral, algae, and other invertebrates at study sites.

  2. Fish Database: Consists of information on sites, taxa, surveys, and survey data (both from the past and from on-going projects). Monitoring information includes data on abundance and size estimates for fish species present at each study site.

  3. Photoquadrat Database: Consists of information on growth, mortality, and recruitment of sessile benthic organisms.

  4. Bibliographic Database: Consists of a bibliographic ID field linked to the survey reference information table, species, keyword and location information fields, bibliographic information, publication abstract where possible, and links to or the full text of publication. David Coleman of the Leeward Community College Library and Eric Hill developed this section of the database.

Benthic Database

The benthic database system uses the Microsoft Access windows database software. The database consists of groups of tables that are linked through common fields in a hierarchical fashion.

The database includes the following variables for each site. Tables and fields for the variables prefaced with an asterisk (*) are not available at present but are being developed.

  1. Site statistics (e.g. Island, depth, GPS coordinates, and conservation status)

  2. Coral and substrate cover for each point within a frame along the transect (PointCount CSV file)

  3. Rugosity for each transect

  4. Taxon information including full species name, family name, synonym, common name, Hawaiian name, and biological characteristics.

  5. *Other data sources (e.g. ReefCheck, DLNR, Pacific Whale Foundation, Kahe Point, Kāne‘ohe Bay sites)

  6. *Algal species present

  7. *Wave exposure rating/value for each site

  8. *Nutrients

The database was developed in MS-Access for the PC. A relational format was used with the underlying structure shown below. (Click image for a larger view)

The CRAMP database in MS Access

Each box represents a table with the corresponding fields listed within it. The tables are structured in a hierarchical fashion. Starting from the left there is location information for each study site such as latitude, longitude, depth and conservation status. Surveys are conducted at a site and have multiple survey dates. Multiple transects are run on a given survey and for each transect there is detail information in the frame table on frame number, analyzing institution, date of analysis, image analyst, and total number of points analyzed. The point table not only contains substrate identification data for the 50 points but also includes X, Y coordinates and color information for the pixels. This data is imported from a Comma Separated Values (CSV) file generated by PointCount 99©, or PhotoGrid .95 which does the actual image analysis. Random point locations for each data point are retained so that they can be used for subsequent reanalysis, quality control and recreated in case of file corruption.

Queries within the database organize the raw data into tables that can be readily exported into Statistica©. The preferred method is to use Excel as the transfer medium due to field incompatibilities between Access and Statistica©. For example, the date formats in Access are not interpreted correctly in Statistica©. Statistics will be performed on the data set for homogeneity of variances and normality. If parametric statistics are appropriate then percent cover for various substrate types will be compared across sampling intervals using a repeated measures ANOVA design that incorporates nesting of transects within sites. For sampling intervals that span a major episodic event, contrasts will be used to examine the pre and post coverage of substrate types.

 

Fish Database

This database contains all of the fish transect data collected at each site during a survey. Data includes site, survey date, observer, transect, abundance and size estimates for all fish species present within the transect boundaries. Multiple queries extract species richness and abundance data for each site. Additional queries convert the size estimates to total biomass and biomass by species for each site. Length estimates of fishes from visual censuses can be converted to weight using the following length-weight conversion: W = aSLb - the parameters a and b are constants for the allometric growth equation where SL is standard length in mm and W in grams. Length-weight parameters are available for 150 species commonly observed on visual fish transects in Hawai‘i (Friedlander, 1997) and are included in the Taxon table of the database.

Statistics on the data are performed using JMP from SAS and Statistica©. The data set is tested for homogeneity of variances and normality. If parametric statistics are appropriate then abundance will be compared across sampling intervals using a repeated measures ANOVA design that incorporates nesting of transects within sites. For sampling intervals that span a major episodic event, contrasts will be used to examine the pre and post coverage of substrate types

Photoquadrat Database

The Photoquadrat Database consists of all photoquadrat images in digital form taken at all sites. Five photoquadrats are taken at each depth (10 per site), so approximately 300 images are taken per sampling cycle. The photoquad database also contains data on observed changes in the benthic components, such as increase in diameter and area of corals, mortality, recruitment, overgrowth, etc.

Bibliographic Database

The Bibliographic Database contains listings for published and unpublished documents concerned with the coral reefs and inshore marine resources of Hawai‘i. Information in the data tables includes author, title, date, journal, abstract, comments and key words. These data are also linked to the primary CRAMP study sites.

The CRAMP database traces its history to 1987. At that time the University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant Program funded a small seed project under Paul Jokiel to develop an electronic bibliographic database for Kāne‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu. The "Kāne‘ohe Bay Research Record" was programmed in dBase III+ programming language. The database was consisted of six separate files (Author, Study, Location, Keyword, Taxa, and Annotation) that are related by a common study number. The Record contained over 600 references and allowed single searches by author, date of study, keywords, location (latitude and longitude coordinates), taxa, and information on experimental study sites. An earlier paper bibliographic compilation of research in the Bay was published by Gordon and Helfrich (1970). The Corps of Engineers (1975) later updated this work through 1975. The Kāne‘ohe Bay Research Record further updated the collected bibliographic information to 1990 in electronic format.

In 1998, the Kāne‘ohe Bay Research Record was converted to Microsoft Access format by Eric Brown as the basis of the developing CRAMP Bibliographic Database. In early 1999 Eric Hill developed the web interface, added bibliographic search features and began adding additional entries from throughout the State of Hawai‘i. The CRAMP Bibliographic Database became an integral part of the CRAMP website. Dave Coleman, UH librarian, joined the effort and located additional material. Eric Hill, Dave Coleman and others have continued to add additional bibliographic information on a state-wide basis. In 1999 Eric Guinther of AECOS graciously contributed an electronic version of the Hawai‘i Coral Reef Initiative Computer Interactive Bibliography (HCRIB) as a source of additional references not contained in the CRAMP bibliography. Eric Guinther originally developed the HCRIB in collaboration with Carl Berg and others. The HCRIB is an endnote-based bibliography which is continually being updated and is available on the web at http://home.Hawai‘i.rr.com/cpie/CoralReefBib.html.

The CRAMP bibliographic database presently contains over 2500 references dealing with Hawaiian reef ecosystems. The database is continually expanding and being upgraded. Hard copies of all listed documents are being archived at Hamilton Library, University of Hawai‘i. All of the records in the database will eventually be reviewed and annotated by experts and will have geographic information added so they can serve as a basic resource for the future development of GIS and data oriented programs.

References:

Gordon JA and Helfrich P (1970) Bibliographic species list for the biota of Kāne‘ohe Bay. Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology Technical Report #21. Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i., Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i (70 pp).

Army Corps of Engineers (1975)

 

Last Update: 04/21/2008

By: Lea Hollingsworth

Hawai‘i Coral Reef Assessment & Monitoring Program

Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology

P.O. Box 1346

Kāne‘ohe, HI 96744

808-236-7440 phone

808-236-7443 fax

email: jokiel@hawaii.edu