CRAMP Home

Long Term Monitoring

Status of the Reefs

Site Selection Process

Methods

Study sites

Hawai‘i
Kaho‘olawe
Maui
Lāna‘i
Moloka‘i
O‘ahu
Kaua‘i
Ni‘ihau

Results

Cooperative Programs

Rapid Assessment

Mapping

Watersheds

Publications



Search the CRAMP Website

Navigate the CRAMP Website

Bibliographic Search

CRAMP Study Sites: Hakioawa Ili, Island of Kaho‘olawe

Hakioawa Ili -- Kanapou Ili -- Kūnaka-Na‘alapa Ili -- Kealaikahiki Ili -- Honoko‘a Ili -- Ahupū Ili -- Kūheia & Kaulana Ili -- Papaka Ili

Geographic Name: Hakioawa Ili

Geographic Location:

20° 35.551’ N; 156° 33.064’ W

20° 35.569’ N; 156° 33.050’ W

Hakioawa Ili runs along the coastline of Kaho‘olawe from Puki o Kohe o Hala ridge crest northward to Lae o Kuikui Point which includes the bays of Hakioawa and ‘Oawawahie.

Chart of Hakioawa Ili.

Chart of Hakioawa Ili. (Click image for larger view.)

Aerial photo of Hakioawa Ili from 1993 NOAA survey. Photo courtesy of Dr. Steve Rohmann.

Aerial photo of Hakioawa Ili from 1993 NOAA survey. Photo courtesy of Dr. Steve Rohmann. (Click image for larger view.)

Physiography:

Hakioawa Ili consists of steep valleys and gullies from the summit at Luamakika to the offshore areas. The valley walls continue seaward as wave-undercut basal headlands. Offshore bathymetry is rather steep with a complex topography of carbonate reefs overlying the original basalt features. The drowned valley bottoms continue seaward into deeper water as sand channels. Small beaches of coarse sand and cobble occur between the basalt headlands.

Shallow reefs (5-10 foot depths) at Hakioawa are dominated by the corals Pocillopora meandrina and Porites lobata. Note steep slope of reef into deeper water. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug 2000.

Shallow reefs (5-10 foot depths) at Hakioawa are dominated by the corals Pocillopora meandrina and Porites lobata. Note steep slope of reef into deeper water. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug 2000. (Click image for larger view.)

Deeper reefs (20-40 foot depths) at Hakioawa are dominated by the corals Montipora capitata, Montipora patula and Porites compressa. This photo shows John Pye (Maui Community College) running video transects at the Hakioawa 30 foot site. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug. 2000.

Deeper reefs (20-40 foot depths) at Hakioawa are dominated by the corals Montipora capitata, Montipora patula and Porites compressa. This photo shows John Pye (Maui Community College) running video transects at the Hakioawa 30 foot site. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug. 2000.  (Click image for larger view.)

Reef Structure, Habitat Classification:

The major habitats consist of hardbotton and coral reef communities on the submerged ridges with unconsolidated material in the intervening drowned valley bottoms. The marine habitat of the basalt headlands consists of crustose coalline algae on basalt in the intertidal zone with some fleshy algae in the shallow subtidal areas. Uncolonized basalt is found in the shallow areas that are heavily impacted by waves (depth 1-5 ft), but rapidly increasing to colonized basalt (10 ft. depth) and finally giving way to aggregated coral heads in slightly deeper water (below 20 ft depth).

Basalt shoreline cliffs of Hakioawa headlands are seen in background as (left to right background) Skippy Hau (DAR), Eric Brown (UH Zoology), Ryan Okano (UH Botany) prepare to lay transect lines for the 30 foot site. John Pye of Maui Community College (foreground) prepares for video run. Rough seas with deep water close to shore characterize this area. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug. 2000.

Basalt shoreline cliffs of Hakioawa headlands are seen in background as (left to right background) Skippy Hau (DAR), Eric Brown (UH Zoology), Ryan Okano (UH Botany) prepare to lay transect lines for the 30 foot site. John Pye of Maui Community College (foreground) prepares for video run. Rough seas with deep water close to shore characterize this area. Photo by Paul Jokiel, Aug. 2000. (Click image for larger view.)

In the 1993 surveys of 19 Kaho‘olawe sites (Cox et. al 1995), coral diversity was highest at Papakanui and Hakioawa, where the coral coverage was relatively high and the coral community included Porites compressa and Montipora spp. In contrast, diversity was lowest at Smuggler‘s Cove, Black Rock, Twin Sands, and North Kanapou, where coral coverage was relatively low and the coral community was dominated by Pocillopora meandrina.

Photoquadrat from the 3m transect at the Hakioawa site.

Photoquadrat from the 10m transect at the Hakioawa site.

Hakioawa, Kaho‘olawe 3m

Total coral cover: 34.5% 

Species Richness: 8

Dominant Species: Porites lobata

Hakioawa, Kaho‘olawe 10m

Total coral cover: 62.0% 

Species Richness: 6 

Dominant Species: Montipora patula

Photoquadrats of the 3m and 10m transects at the Hakioawa site.

Oceanographic and Meteorological Conditions:

The coastline at Hakioawa is protected from destructive large swell by islands to the north and east and by Kaho‘olawe itself to the south and west. However, this site experiences considerable shallow water wave energy generated by the localized action of the NE Trade Winds. The trade winds funnel between Maui and Hawai‘i in the Alenuihāhā Channel to produce heavy NE Trade Wind Waves which refract around South Maui and bend into the Alalākeiki Channel directly off Hakioawa. Although greatly attenuated, these waves move NW along the shoreline. In addition, winds coming over the valley between east and west Maui generally increase in strength by late morning and continue until late afternoon. This wind is northerly and produces large waves as it blows across the long fetch of sea between West Maui and Kaho‘olawe. The end result is strong short period wave motion from the north interacting with the waves coming from the east off Hakioawa to produce a highly confused sea. Also, winds can be strong and gusty while varying between north and southeast. Currents generally follow the wind patterns bringing clear oceanic waters ashore at Hakioawa from the east.

Adjacent Land Use and Influence:

Island is in conservation status and undergoing revegetation and restoration. Limited visitation for cultural and educational activities occurs here. Access to the marine environment is restricted, except for one weekend per month when trolling is allowed within the reserve. Fishing is allowed in certain locations around Hakioawa for consumption on the island.

Management Concerns:

Revegetation of watershed to control erosion and reduce sediment impacts on the reef is a major activity. In addition, a major concern is the protection of the numerous archaeological and cultural sites in the area. Care is taken to avoid anchor damage and any potential negative environmental impacts by visitors. Use of buoy moorings have been proposed to eliminate coral damage. The area has been thoroughly cleared of unexploded ordnance, but there always in concern that erosion will uncover material missed in the clearance operations.

Human Use Patterns:

Hakioawa serves as the base camp area for the Protect Kaho‘olawe Ohana and is currently used for religious, cultural and educational activities. Groups generally visit once per month. Water development and revegetation projects have been conducted here. Water catchments on the upper slopes feed into a delivery and irrigation system. A number of small structures are used for cooking and storage. Areas for tents and camp sites have been established. Trails lead out of Hakioawa along the shoreline to ‘Oawawahi and to Lae o Kuikui. Trails leading to Moaulanui are found on the east and western ridges above Hakioawa.

Cultural Importance:

Hakioawa was the main settlement area prior to Western contact and thus has the highest concentration of archeological and cultural sites on Kaho‘olawe. This area is currently used for religious, cultural and educational activities. Hakioawa Bay is a place of ceremony for Hawaiians. Traditional heiau and shrines in the area have been rededicated and new heiau and shrines have been constructed.

Data:

29 May 1993.‘Oawawahie Qualitative SCUBA

24 Mar 1993. Hakioawa (south) Coral transects, fish transects, sediments (Te, Cox, Jokiel)

May 1993 beach profiles and core sediment samples were collected at Honoko‘a, Lae Paki, Kaukamoku, Ahupū, and Papaka Iki

10 July 1999- present (annual) Hakioawa coral, fish, sediments, rugosity CRAMP/DAR surveys on-going

2004-2006 Marine Option Program (Stanton) Papaka Iki, Hakioawa, Kūheia, Honoko‘a, Kealikahiki

Kaho‘olawe Island Reserve surveys http://www.state.hi.us/kirc/main/home.htm

 

Last Update: 04/21/2008

By: Lea Hollingsworth

Hawai‘i  Coral Reef Assessment & Monitoring Program

Hawai‘i  Institute of Marine Biology

P.O. Box 1346

Kāne‘ohe, HI 96744

808-236-7440 phone

808-236-7443 fax

email: jokiel@hawaii.edu